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Authenticity and Bohemian Culture

In philosophy authenticity is a technical term in existentialist philosophy. The term of authenticity is also used in the philosophy of art and psychology. From this perspective it is easy to connect to bohemian culture. Most people keep the bohemians as people with high level of authenticity. Why?

One answer can be presented by philosopher Charles Taylor, who argues in his book “The Ethics of Authenticity” that all humans have a natural feeling to tell the difference between right and wrong.  Taylor discusses in his famous book about the big idea of getting in touch with your inner self to find your true self identity. In the life shape of human beings people try to keep touch with their inner true self identity. Inner virtues are crucial for the ethics of authenticity. Today modern psychology views authenticity as integral to well-being.

Charles Taylor states that trying to listen to the inner-self may be very difficult because of own social dependence on others. If we continue to depend on other people, the voice of our inner nature will be drowned out and we become oriented un-authentically. We can lose ourselves and lose bohemian attitude.  Also social pressures of middle-class culture or average behavioral norms can lead people to inauthentic ways of living. Heidegger in his later life associated authenticity with non-technological modes of existence, seeing technology as distorting a more “authentic” relationship with the natural world.

In conventional philosophical thinking, the conscious self is seen as coming to terms being in a material world and with encountering external forces, pressures and influences which are very different from, and other than, unique itself. Thus, authenticity is the degree to which one is true to one’s own personality, spirit, or character, despite these external social and cultural pressures. In the art an authentic signature is telling to us about undisputed origin or genuine authorship. An authentic account is telling to us about accuracy in representation of the facts, about trustworthy work and about reliability. In bohemian culture authentic signatures and authentic accounts are issues of pride.

Being in touch with our inner voice is very important because it tells us what the right thing to do is.  In bohemian culture this kind of attitude is very important, because in many biographies of bohemian persons the biggest struggles of them have often been internal struggles to be true to one´s own personality and character. Often a lack of authenticity is considered to be bad faith. Even an unpleasant truth is valued in bohemian culture.

One of the greatest problems facing such abstract approaches like authenticity is that the often culture bound. Objectivity of one´s inner voice cannot be evaluated easily. Maybe that is a reason why bohemian people are often seen as ultra-subjective and ambient persons seeking ultimate freedom. On the other hand bohemians are seen as real and original persons, not playing social role games. Inside bohemian culture, non-authenticity or un-authenticity are not appreciated.

Index

1                          Charles Taylor

Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Taylor_(philosopher)

2                          Authenticity

Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Authenticity_(philosophy)

3                    Authentic personality

Wood, A. M., Linley, P. A., Maltby, J., Baliousis, M. & Joseph, S. (2008) The authentic personality: A theoretical and empirical conceptualization, and the development of the Authenticity Scale. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 55, pp. 385-399.

4                    Martin Heidegger

Martin Heidegger (2010)  Being and Time. Trans. by Joan Stambaugh; revised by Dennis J. Schmidt. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heidigger

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The Trans-media Challenge, Ubiquitous Technology and New Bohemian Culture of Creative Class

Trans-media Challenge, Ubiquitous Technology and New Bohemian Culture of Creative Class

A key element of creative work is storytelling. Today many media channels are interconnected. In the future media channels are even more linked and interconnected because of ubiquitous technologies, machines and robots. Trans-media storytelling is a technique of telling novel stories across multiple formats and platforms. Trans-media storytelling is also known in some communication contexts as multi-platform storytelling, cross-platform storytelling, or trans-media narrative. Ubiquitous technologies make this kind of trans-mediation possible.

Many platforms are today a part of social media. In the future they will be a part of ubiquitous media. Traditional media formats like TV, radio, video, game, film, magazine and newspaper are today facing new challenges of trans-media development. Already now many movies like “Year Zero” are trans-media projects. The new internet solutions and applications Web 2.0, Web 3.0 and Web 4.0 will lead us to new kind of internet era. Especially for creative class and for journalism emerging trans-media is a big challenge, which changes work life and work culture.

Ubiquitous technology is not a neutral trend for societies. It will change many things, leading in an extreme form to technological singularity. As we know technological singularity refers to the hypothetical future emergence of greater-than-human intelligence through technological means, very probably resulting in explosive super intelligence. In this kind of techno society humans must develop new social positions, different from the positions of robots and super intelligent systems. We can expect that new kind of social and cultural structures will emerge.

Humans cannot compete with super intelligence, where already now new markets are in conditions of hyper-competition. Technology historically has fostered agility. Hyper-competition results from the dynamics of strategic maneuvering amongst competitors and from new technologies. Strategic maneuvering is more and more based on robotics and super intelligence. Many experts criticize these kinds of developments, especially in financial markets, where robotized gambling casinos without any rules (or not many rules) are possible to be run.

Many futurists say that it is very difficult or impossible for present-day humans to predict what a post-singularity world would be like. Raymond Kurzweil has discussed about this topic widely. However, we can expect that human beings must define their relationship to super intelligent systems and robots. Many complex ethical issues need answers.

The start of ubiquitous era means that we shall need new social innovations, which define new rules of societies. Also new business and technology innovations are needed to manage change in this kind of environment. We can also expect that the time of average is going to be over, because robots define the code of average from new technological pre-conditions. Accordingly, humans must re-define their positions from this novel perspective.
Ubiquitous technology development means also that the borders between real reality and virtual reality become vague. In real environments actual events, material substances and real places matter. In virtual environments virtual places, digital substances and autonomous events matter. The new trans-media emerges when these 6 key real and virtual elements will be linked by ubiquitous technologies and tech applications.

This is a future vision of global trans-media.

The trans-media includes both real and virtual elements. Authenticity will be a strategic key issue in the experience society, which is the next society after service economy. In the experience economy attention is scarce, time is limited and money is consumable. These are also the basic rules of trans-media.

There seems to be more questions than answers concerning our common future. Creative class members and especially bohemian persons are probably finding new answers more probably than the “average class”. One working hypothesis is that robots will destroy the “labor class” in the future. If this hypothesis holds, it means that population rich countries will face the era of mass employment. Also other smaller countries will have social and economic problems, because local and global markets do not work well. How much this process takes time, is another open question.

Humans have an obvious challenge: to be creative persons who find answers to open questions. People are forced to find the bohemian element of their minds.

Index

1 Social media
Safko, Lon & Brake, David (2010) The Social Media Bible , Tools & Strategies for Business Success. Tactics Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.
2 Trans-media
Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmedia
Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmedia_storytelling

3 Year Zero
Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Year_Zero_(game)
4 Internet evolution: Web 1.0, Web 2.0, Web 3.0 & Web 4.0
Web: http://www.marcuscake.com/economic-development/internet-evolution
5 Singularity
Good, I. J. (1965) Speculations Concerning the First Ultraintelligent Machine. In Franz L. Alt and Morris Rubinoff (Ed.) Advances in Computers. Academic Press 6: pp. 31–88.
Kurzweil, Ray (2005) The Singularity is Near. New Jersey, USA: Penguin Group.
Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technological_singularity
Tainter, Joseph (1988) The Collapse of Complex Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
6 Raymond Kurzweil
Web: http://www.kurzweilai.net/
7 Ubiquitous technology
Jurvansuu, Marko (2011) Roadmap to a Ubiquitous World: Where the Difference Between Real and Virtual Is Blurred. VTT Research Notes 2574. VTT: Helsinki.
Web: http://www.vtt.fi/inf/pdf/tiedotteet/2011/T2574.pdf
Web: http://sandbox.xerox.com/ubicomp/
8 Creative class
Florida, R. (2002). The Rise of the Creative Class: And How it’s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life. New York: Perseus Book Group.
Rindermann, Heiner & Thompson, James (2011) Cognitive capitalism: The effect of cognitive ability on wealth, as mediated through scientific achievement and economic freedom. Psychological Science 22 (6), pp. 754-763.
9 Hypercompetition
D’Aveni, Richard (1997) Waking up to the New Era of Hypercompetition. The Washington Quarterly, pp. 183–195.
Plant, R. (2006) Hypercompetition and differentiation. Web: http://blogs.msdn.com/b/archetype/archive/2006/07/24/677222.aspx
10 Robotized gambling
Web: http://www.innovationnewsdaily.com/565-human-traders-automated-extinction-markets.html

Enjoy Your Life with Bohemian Attitude and Lifestyle! Navigation Guidelines for Trans-mediated Reality from the History of Art

Lifestyle is one of the most important things for today´s people. It is even more important for tomorrow´s people and youngsters. Lifestyle affects the way people work and live their leisure time. A key trend for change in lifestyles has been the individualization, or even ultra-individualization. Many people seek after distinctive way of life or very special work profile. Everyday life is a series of events with the meaning and intention. Human relations, clothing, patterns of consumption and entertainment are parts of lifestyle. Lifestyle affects person’s values, attitudes and general outlook on life. We select our lifestyle in order to enjoy our lives.

With a special bohemian attitude life can be more interesting and more enjoyable. We can understand our realities from the art perspective, not only from science or religious perspective.

People want to live their own lives so that they stand out from other people in some way. “Be unique or do not exist” is one behavioral rule of bohemian people. For bohemians the way of life is a key issue. It’s hard to imagine that bohemian persons would like to be part of a social establishment, or the bohemian expert settle for mediocrity. On the contrary, bohemian people shun mediocrity. They make themselves look like the operating environment, very personal and tailored for very special cultural rules. They are thinking: The more special – the better; the more strange – the better. In competitive urban environments many experts are talking about the Warhol economy, where bohemians drive creative industries like fashion, art and music. The cultural scene of New York is an arena of trendsetters and emerging trends.

Bohemian is a word developed in the 1800s in France. This generalized term describes many artists, creators and writers, who spend their unusual and irregular life. One Finnish poet and legendary rock musician Juice Leskinen described this kind of life style by writing a bohemian note: “I received a tattered life”. He really did it.

Originally the word meant the Bohemian Czech historical region of Bohemia population. Original Bohemian artists resembled the French view, wandering gypsies, who lived outside of the established social practices, and who were uninterested in conveying conventional circuit disapproval. Bohemian lifestyle is exceptional, avoiding traditional parties and the public acceptance. Often they have sharp contradictions with conventional political views, beliefs and opinions. Bohemian are having typically quite liberal sexual activity, non-material, very, very modest lifestyle and often living in voluntary poverty. In addition, a bohemian culture is a kind of “romanticism of misery.” Bohemians often make virtue out of necessity.

In history, typical bohemian lifestyle cultures have been avant-garde, the culture of the Beat-generation, Goth culture, hippie movement, liberalism and French Moulin Rouge. For example, avant-garde (referring to “advance guard “) refers to people or works that are experimental and a violation of the established trends of their time. The word is used especially in the fields of visual arts, film, literature and music in the context of new trends, but also for any new paradigm, for example when talking about culture or the novel political sphere.

The concept of avant-garde has become a topical debate on the fate of modernism. Bohemians are avant-garde persons in their lifestyle. For bohemians – the average has always been over.

Avant-garde artists and people are sometimes combined with street art, graffiti, or with anti-trends, wild cards and the ground-breaking new emerging issues. However, avant-garde is not a single art movement such as surrealism and cubism, since important concepts are constantly changing over time. Some of the avant-garde strategy of action is publication of manifest/s. It is usually a series of strong statements expressing the direction of movement of artistic ideas and intentions, and what the opposing advocates. The manifesto can be one key achievement of the artist or artist team achievement. Provocations are important part of the bohemian communications. Manifests are underlining new forms of cultural expression. Looking for new means of expression was almost willful in all artistic fields of avant-garde. Teenagers are often having bohemian sub-cultures because they like provocations.

Often the big idea is polarized and manifests to the publication of a major fuss as possible “fanfare”. Management of art and cultural creative industries is more demanding than conventional business branches. It is close to innovation management, but underlining art and aesthetics as key issues of management. Organizations wanting to attract bohemian personalities and creative thinkers need to emphasize a strong commitment to excellence and artistic integrity to be successful beyond the short term. Often great world class artists are working outside the establishment and the major system. For example, great film maker Woody Allen wants to work outside big film studios. He seeks actively distribution in the USA and Europe as a precursor to securing financing to see his art and film projects to fruition. Artistic ventures are sometimes very controversial and provocative. Sometimes artists are very focused on non-profit management organizations and do not want to be “Wall Street capitalists”.

In the 20th century it became very clear that the avant-garde did not fit in the totalitarian societies. Bohemians are not “fitting in” to totalitarian cultures. The German Nazis did the Bauhaus art school and thought it impossible to operate all of the modernist trends of “decadence of art.” Also Soviet Bolshevik repression of the century was an impassioned avant-garde. Spanish philosopher and essayist Jose Ortega y´Gasset says that the immediate effect of every avant-garde is that it creates its own top-level elite. He said that avant-garde creates obscure phenomena to divide audiences who understand and those who do not understand the new genres of avant-garde. This cultural gap does not follow any political or economic lines. There is also trans-avant-garde, which means the ultimate avant-garde border, the other side of the art. This “other side” is very interesting zone for bohemian artists and scientists. This kind of trans-avant-garde culture is having many impacts on economy and politics, when political and economic agents cannot trust in existing cultural structures and organizations. Trans-avant-garde is a vital source of wild cards of our times.

Avant-garde is key concept of bohemian culture. There have been artist forms of avant-garde. Such artist avant-garde movements have been avant-garde-jazz, cubism, Dadaism, futurism, impressionism, expressionism, abstract expressionism, modernism, surrealism and so called Zaum movement.

Another key concept of bohemian culture is activism. Activism is a policy of direct action. The concept of citizenship or civic activism means a national public functioning of society, such as the actions of different associations. Activism can be profiled as a case for or against an issue. A citizen, who actively works either independently or in a group pushing something, is often referred to as an activist.

Activism is receiving public attention in forms of demonstrations and civil disobedience. Change activism includes campaigning, lobbying, publications, seminars, and non-formal co-operation with policy makers. Civil action is framed by non-governmental organizations and movements, which bring in the same way-minded people together, organize, and organize their activities and act in some forms.

Today, Internet activism has moved to the virtual networks, and, is has taken new forms of web logs and wikis. Internet activism is today having a dynamic nature of trans-media and it has challenged both the traditional policy making and the old established media, and it has created a new and alternative publicities as well as exposing the politically sensitive information that traditional media has not been able to “find out”. The attention economy or experience economy are the key strategic arenas of bohemian tribes and individuals.

Sources
1 Lifestyle
Web: http://lifestyle.msn.com/
2 Mediocrity
Web: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/mediocrity
Web: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/25/opinion/friedman-average-is-over.html?_r=2
3 The Warhol economy
Currid, E. (2007) The Warhol Economy. How Fashion, Art and Music Drive New York City? Princeton & Oxford. Princeton University Press.
4 Juice Leskinen
Web: http://www.last.fm/music/Juice+Leskinen
5 Bohemianism
Niman, Michael I. (1997) People of the Rainbow: a Nomadic Utopia. Knoxville: The University of Tennessee Press.
Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bohemianism
6 Woody Allen
Bjorkman, Stig (2005) Woody Allen on Woody Allen. Faber.
Web: http://www.woodyallen.com/
Web: http://woodyallen.net/books.html
7 Non-profit management
Lowell, S. et al (2001) Not-for-profit management. McKinsey Quarterly 1, 147-155.
Web: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Bohemian
8 Beat-generation
Holmes, John Clellon (1952) This is the beat generation. Web: http://www.litkicks.com/Texts/ThisIsBeatGen.html
9 Goth culture
Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goth_subculture
Hodkinson, Paul (002) Goth: Identity, Style and Subculture. Dress, Body, Culture Series. Berg.
Venters, Jillian (2009) Gothic Charm School: An Essential Guide for Goths and Those Who Love Them. Harper Paperbacks.
10 Hippie movement
Web: http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/History+of+the+hippie+movement
11 Liberalism
Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberalism
12 French Moulin Rouge
Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/?title=Moulin_Rouge!&target=blank
13 Avant-garde
Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avant-guard
Philip Nel. (2009) The Avant-Garde and American Postmodernity: Small Incisive Shocks. University Press of Mississippi.
Wood, Paul (1999) The Challenge of the Avant-Garde. New Haven: Yale University Press.
14 Bauhaus
Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bauhaus_manifesto
Frampton, Kenneth (1992) The Bauhaus: Evolution of an Idea 1919–32. Modern Architecture: A Critical History (3rd ed. rev. ed.). New York, NY: Thames and Hudson, Inc.
15 José Ortega y Gasset
Web: http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/grasset.htm
16 Cubism
Cauman, John (2001) Inheriting Cubism: The Impact of Cubism on American Art, 1909-1936. New York: Hollis Taggart Galleries.
Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cubism
17 Dadaism
Jones, Dafydd (2006) Dada Culture. NY and Amsterdam, Rodopi.
Richter, Hans (1965) Dada: Art and Anti-Art. London: Thames and Hudson.
Web: http://dadaism.wikispaces.com/
18 Futurism
John Rodker (1927). The Future of Futurism. New York: E.P. Dutton & company.
Gentile, Emilo ( 2003) The Struggle for Modernity: Nationalism, Futurism, and Fascism. Praeger Publishers.
Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Futurism
19 Impressionism
Moskowitz, Ira & Sérullaz, Maurice (1962) French Impressionists: A Selection of Drawings of the French 19th Century. Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and Company.
Rewald, John (1973) The History of Impressionism (4th, Revised Ed.). New York: The Museum of Modern Art.
Web: http://www.artandpopularculture.com/Impressionism
20 Expressionism
Gordon, Donald E. (1987) Expressionism: Art and Ideas. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Dijkstra, Bram (2003) American Expressionism: Art and Social Change, 1920-1950. New York : H.N. Abrams. In association with the Columbus Museum of Art.
Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expressionism
21 Abstract expressionism
Anfam, David (2008) Abstract Expressionism— A World Elsewhere. New York: Haunch of Venison.
Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abstract_expressionism
22 Modernism
Crouch, Christopher (2000) Modernism in Art Design and Architecture. New York: St. Martins Press.
Eysteinsson, Astradur (1992) The Concept of Modernism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modernism
Web: http://www.mastersofmodernism.com/?page=Modernism
23 Surrealism
Durozoi, Gerard (2004) History of the Surrealist Movement. University of Chicago Press.
Breton, André (1973) Surrealism and Painting. Icon.
Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surrealism
Web: http://www.tcf.ua.edu/Classes/Jbutler/T340/SurManifesto/ManifestoOfSurrealism.htm
Web: http://www.cnac-gp.fr/education/ressources/ENS-Surrealistart-EN/ENS-Surrealistart-EN.htm
24 Zaum movement
Knowlson J. (1996) The Continuing Influence of Zaum. London: Bloomsbury.
Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zaum
Web: http://thebirchonline.org/fall05/semiotics.html
25 Attention economy
Simon, H. A. (1971) Designing Organizations for an Information-Rich World. In Martin Greenberger, Computers, Communication, and the Public Interest, Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press.
Simon, H. A. (1996) The Sciences of the Artificial (3rd ed.), Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, Davenport, T. H. & Beck, J. C. (2001). The Attention Economy: Understanding the New Currency of Business. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Schmid, H. (2009) Economy of Fascination: Dubai and Las Vegas as Themed Urban Landscapes. Stuttgart, Berlin: E. Schweizerbart science publishers.
Haque, U. (November 8, 2005). “The Attention Economy”. Bubble generation – Strategies for a discontinuous future. Retrieved November 27, 2005. Web: http://majestic.typepad.com/seth/2005/11/media_futures_t.html
26 Experience economy
Pine, J. & Gilmore, J. (1999) The Experience Economy, Harvard Business School Press, Boston.
Schmitt, B. & Simonson, A. (1997) In Marketing Aesthetics: The Strategic Management of Brands, Identity, and Image. New York: The Free Press.

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